Mapping the Pattern of Sex Workers, Entertainment Establishments and Men who have Sex with Men in Cambodia

KHANA implemented a focused prevention program targeted to most at risk populations (MARP) with funding support from EC and USAID. The mapping study incorporated both a situation and response analysis. The study showed that both sex workers and MSM both faces stigma and discrimination from the community as a result of societal attitudes towards sex and sexual preference.

Evaluation of Microfinance Pilot Project for HIV Affected Families

KHANA has been providing income generation activities (IGA) through community based implementing partners to HIV affected families. Small scale grants of USD30 were provided which can have only a limited impact on household economies.

As a result, KHANA piloted a microfinance project for HIV affected families partnering with VisionFund. The evaluation aims to measure the impact, identify lessons learnt and challenges encountered, and identify best practices from the pilot.

Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect data from selected respondents. Results showed most of HIV affected families who received microfinance had improved living conditions in terms of food security, health condition, child school attendance, and saving. Notably, PLHIV who accessed microfinance reported higher adherence to anti retroviral therapy (ART). There is a need to sustain momentum of the positive effects of microfinance provision among HIV affected households. It is strongly recommended the pilot continues and is expanded to other communities.

Income Generation for People Living with HIV and Orphans and Vulnerable Children

The report summarises finding from a brief study of the successes and, challenges of KHANA and local partners in Income Generating Activities (IGAs) for people affected by HIV/AIDS. The study covered ten partners in five provinces so only represents a subset of the whole KHANA IGA program. Most partners are providing small grants or loans to PLHA and OVC families for IGA. The approach has been deliberately flexible and partners have tried many different schemes, including: grants, small loans with flexible repayment requirements, grants linked to savings and grants or loans to self-help groups.

Compounding vulnerabilities: Result of Participatory Assessment and Response on Drug and Substance Use and HIV/AIDS in Phnom Penh, Battambang, Siem Reap and Sihanoukville

At the time of the study, illicit drug use had only been recently recognized by the Cambodian government as having the potential to accelerate the HIV epidemic in Cambodia. Responses to this issue had been focused, at best, on arresting dealers and sending users to military style camps for rehabilitation.

The study aimed to identify the most vulnerable people at risk to HIV related to drug use. Participatory approaches were used to generate qualitative information. Results showed relatively high levels of drug use within certain populations including out of school youth and sex workers. These groups already have a high HIV risk which is therefore compounded by the use of behavior changing drugs such as amphetamine type stimulants. The study recommends that drug related programs need to fully understand the personal and social factors that lead to drug use. A lack of services relating to drug use was found and therefore improvements to services and information availability and community involvement are needed.

Evaluation of CORE Initiative Project

The Communities Responding to the HIV/AIDS Epidemic (CORE) Initiative, a global program founded by the USAID, aimed to support an inspired, effective and inclusive response to the causes and consequences of HIV/AIDS by strengthening the capacity of community and faith-based groups (CBO/FBO). An evaluation was conducted using qualitative research to analyse inputs, outcomes, change among beneficiaries, challenges and lessons learned. Findings showed increased access to resources for CBO/FBO through small grants provided to implement HIV prevention and impact mitigation activities.

Food Support to PLHA and OVC with Home Based Care Report

The report highlights findings of an evaluation of the three year integrated food support and home care project conducted in collaboration with WFP. The report also aims to establish baseline data for future project implementation. The evaluation used a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches and looked at two areas (one intervention and one control). The report outlines the socio-economic and demographic profiles of informants and the positive impact of the program in mitigating the effect of HIV/AIDS on food security, nutrition, health, schooling, and improving livelihoods. Major change in the perception of beneficiaries and communities around their role and responsibilities in the project were also found.

NGO Capacity Assessment Report

The assessment aimed to examine organizational and project management capacity, and staff technical capacity. The capacity assessment aimed to inform capacity building plans for each partner. Data was collected through small group discussions, large group discussions, individual and confidential scoring, and final review of result with all participants against assessment tool criteria. Findings showed strong implementation, networking and coordination capacity of partners. However, gaps were found in areas of policy, procedures and regulations documentation. Improvement in these areas will improve program implementation, effectiveness and impact.

Qualitative Baseline for the Cambodia Program

The program aims to improve empowerment for most risk population and PLHIV, which is visualized as the interplay between social capital, an enabling environment and access to services and commodities. A baseline study was conducted using qualitative methods. Findings showed diversity in stigma towards affected populations, including variations among geographical areas, rural groups, and minority groups and due to status as SW or MSM. Sex workers were looked down upon the general community due to perceived low social class. The study found PLHIV were pessimistic about the future, isolated, and affected by low self esteem. PLHIV relied most on relatives and friends for support, followed by NGO and pagodas. PLHIV were found to be using private practitioners for medicine supply rather than public services.

Mid-Term Review: Home and Community Based Care for PLHA & OVC

A qualitative method was employed using field visits, observation, semi-structure interviews and key informant interviews. Finding show achievements of home based care (HBC) activities include: increased technical skills related to home based care activities; increased HIV and ARV awareness; empowerment of PLHIV to resist stigma and discrimination due to their illness; facilitation of PLHIV voice through home care teams (HCT) and self help group (SHG) meetings. Challenges faced include: constraints related to planned time frame, limited budget for travel to reach isolated areas; difficulties following up with PLHIV migrating for work; demotivation of home based care staff due to limited budget, training gaps and demanding reporting requirements.